“Time may be the fire we burn in.” And even though we could not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempted to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance gets to be a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Air separation equipment can be a world apart, a reminder of the ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe from the eons ahead.
For many who aim to discover truths about the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of energy is a concern of significant proportions. Scientists are generally thinking about very specific cell properties that transpire at critical junctions within the life of a cell. Holding these processes away while their properties may be exploited is akin to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as you answer to the trouble in the slow burn. By reducing the temperatures of samples for the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature at which all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists have the ability to seclude moments in time, returning time and again to research that instant in history.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics has become an important industry that creates customized products for up to every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the current market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in each and every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such a multitude of products to select from understanding of the ones that are most effective may elude the normal consumer. In order to provide an introduction to the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers is going to be profiled in this post.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those stuff that many people never consider until they quit working. Created to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels in the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch across the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists try to avoid thinking about what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory during the day whenever it did. A career’s amount of samples can be lost in just one afternoon– many years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Although this sort of scenario looms ominously in the periphery of every researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the entire day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers took great pains to make certain that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies may be the only company that uses the Kleemenko cooling cycle within its refrigerators. Although the gas industry has used this procedure for many years, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for really small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
How the Kleemenko cycle works is that a mixture of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and it is permitted to expand through a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and also the cool gas passes support the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. One or more liquid-vapor separators can be incorporated within the cycle to ensure the increase of the liquid could be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The unit allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and since it has an internal power supply it can be used for the transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the demand for controlled temperature ramping.
“Like a user you need to understand the minimum temperature and just how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes certain that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained during the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is actually a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages might be preserved for longer periods. Locking lids are offered as a way to protect samples from accidental being exposed to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are of help for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality of this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to work longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of doing holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also works with a special blend of azeotropic gases which can be non-flammable and let on-site recycling. Additionally, a built in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every one day, turning it well to ensure the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. includes a long tradition of earning ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with 4 decades of experience under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the market. When the Montreal Protocol started the phase out from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was one of the primary to work with Dupont Suva 95, the brand new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler together with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of eco-friendly refrigerants, So-Low has developed a modern compressor that is certainly designed exclusively for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the normal cylindrical containers. All these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to support a selection of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates long lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers exceeding fifty years of experience in the marketplace. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be bought in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions to the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. It also carries a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from your evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for more than two decades, beginning with its manufacture of the very first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the growth of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the initial manufacturer to provide a complete selection of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers among the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers currently available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for utilization in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The term dewar, originally placed on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now put on a wide range of insulated vessels made for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending upon their size, dewars usually rest on the floor or sit on tabletops where samples can be easily accessed. Due to quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as one year without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The typical thermal wall includes an aluminum or steel sandwich filled up with polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to such an extent that many companies build custom dewars to acquire. Many of these companies as well as their goods are reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE has created laboratory freezers for a wide variety of applications. Needless to say, animal breeders are just a small number of its customers. Blood and cell storage along with organ shipment are an equally large a part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the easiest-growing area of the industry for the company’s products.
MVE was the initial company to build up biological freezers effective at maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that period MVE has released the full collection of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures as low as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells which can be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers may also be helpful for storing hazardous materials that could cross-communicate in the liquid medium, for example contaminated-blood bags that are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is really a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the states and Germany. Its product line includes from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
As outlined by Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one of the ways his company has was able to remain competitive is actually by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is they might be custom designed.
One of Quantum Technology’s most favored products is a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in several countries outside Canada And America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a problem of concern. That is probably the reasons why Quantum Technology makes a reliable two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained in the system. The helium out of this refrigerator is reliquified for use again and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, offers a Thermo-Flask type of goods that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types can be purchased with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and all these models is accessible with a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask line of products include vented lids to stop pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to provide coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that happen to be distributed by several companies throughout america. The Bio-Cane systems can be purchased in five sizes and provide features for example super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be found in four sizes and get capacities of up to 6,000 vials. Together with some of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks having a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, as well as an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are produced from borosilicate glass included in a protective mesh, and every wide-mouth model has a vented polyethylene stopper to minimize evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can be jacketed in aluminum casing for more safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are best for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of 14 days. Every one of these units come equipped with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Choices for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to save vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Every one of these units is complemented by their own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the quantity of vials that could be safely arranged right into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the most frequently used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out 1 day. Then its time to travel shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the initial in which concerns the matter of whether they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials advise that material is trapped throughout the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort debate that externally threaded vials will be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although studies have been conducted in order to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, along with the debate continues.
Yet another consideration that comes under consideration when purchasing cryogenic tubes is the material from where they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take longer to warm which could negatively change the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes may also be contaminated with releasing fluids throughout the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove with all the care, and some businesses like Axygen are switching to new polished molds which do not require the application of releasing fluids. Glass, however, warms rapidly but is additionally subjected to fracture as a result of microchannels which could form within the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials may also be prone to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion is not as great.
Gasketing has been a problem of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the inner pressure of your vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas in the tube is sufficient to force cells and fluid through the lids of many non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is generally preferred since the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is likewise used, it features a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem that was demonstrated when the “O” rings in the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large collection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that can be used at temperatures only -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip along with a silicon washer. An exclusive ridge on each cap makes handling easier, adding to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts along with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be bought in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and are avalable in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also offers a wide range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Included in this are polypropylene tubes, that may be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and therefore are pressure tested in the vacuum chamber to ensure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to be used in lipid fractionation studies. This is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding features of this tube is that it is completely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that are silicone gasketed and guaranteed to be used inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and they are certified to be sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, while the System 100 vials are sure to be leakproof in a microcentrifuge up to 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed a thorough catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be bought in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. These are typically suitable for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that happen to be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction ensures they are exceptionally durable, and they may be flame sealed or stored with a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes several polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with various features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be found with selected styles. All of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be constructed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of your customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel which are typical constituents of dyes. All of the company’s vials is designed to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports have the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system incorporates a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees the microtube is aligned in the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has a extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that could come in a big selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The user has a choice of choosing from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. Most of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, as well as the polypropylene material that these are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures along with temperatures and pressures in a autoclave. One of many areas that Sarstedt has paid particular attention to in developing its collection of products is the requirement for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be purchased in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical a part of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes that will make them difficult to keep trace. Labels can become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the more popular methods for containing samples will be the canister and cane. By using this technique, a series of vials are enclosed in a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be simply manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer method is usually preferred. Although drawer systems often expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of your system reduces exposure time to ambient temperatures resulting in less evaporation from the freezer, and in addition cuts down on the researcher’s contact with potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are made to optimize the quantity of space for storage afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration can be a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to organize up to 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International is an expert in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Created for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be purchased in numerous sizes, shapes, and colours to suit almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents being viewed without opening the containers, and they can be adjusted in certain models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers which contain storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise several plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are keyed to avoid misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems works with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for quick retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for an increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, LNG filling Station has responded with boxes and racks which are constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids to be able to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is among the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. Actually, most of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with some of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless steel and can include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be bought as individual units or as complete racks for usage in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Probably, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones that might be used for years. An order made today may work for ten years. Ultimately, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not just buying products for their own reasons, they are buying for their successors. The consumer should consider what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. A little bit money that had been saved at first by scrimping on vials or freezers may well not seem like the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards built in to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products a top priority. Appointing a permanent position that is mainly responsible for the cryogenic safety of your laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the best ways to assure the integrity of such samples.